Tulu is a rich ancient language with a prominent place in the Dravidian language category. The area between the Kalyanapura river and Chandragiri river of the Western Coast is the place where most of the people speak Tulu (This area is now-a-days known as the present Kasargod, Dakshina Kannada and Udupi Districts). People speaking Tulu are called Tuluva and their place as Tulunadu. In Agananur of Sangam literature, Tuluvas have been mentioned (Akam-15-1-5). Tulunadu and its people have been mentioned in edicts. Many edicts of South Kannada written in Kannada and Sanskrit mention the name of Tulunadu. A Kannada edict in Tulu script has been found in a place near Udupi.
Kingly dynasties like Alupa, Bhairarasa, and Domba Hegade ruled Tulunadu for several centuries. It is clear from documents available that, the word Tulu was ceased at first for the area, later to refer to the people there and finally for the language spoken by them. Many scholars have attempted to find the origin of Tulu and the words born therefrom. The word Tulu is used to give meanings like: that which belongs to Tulu, one who speaks Tulu, softness core, and also one who provided water. On the basis of regional differences, Tulu can be categorized as Udupi Tulu, Mangalore Tulu, Puttur Tulu and Kasargod Tulu. By observing the difference in the spoken language, two major differences can be recognized – Brahmins Tulu and general Tulu. In spite of all these varieties, it is the speciality of this place to have normal business regarding the language without any confusion what so ever. Even though Tulu was a developed language, it was opined that it did not have a script of its own and that it had a script akin to that of Malayalam. But, recent findings have shown that Tulu had a separate script and that Vishnutunga and others used only Tulu script.
Tulu has rich folk literature in Pad-dana, Sandhi, Kabita, Madipu, Kathe, Gaade, Ogatu, Nritya Padya, Ural, Jogula and Ajjikathe. Paddana or Sandhi is a story telling poetry like a Ballad. It is the strongest form of Tulu folk literature. Pad-dana is about the Bhootas which are worshipped in Tulunadu or Pad-dana tells stories of folk people of great stature.Pad-dana of Bhoothas is sung before the respective Bhootas get into trance. While singing Pad-dana, a small leather percussive instrument called Tembare is played. Pad-danas are sung for the sake of entertainment also. Pad-danas relating to more than four hundred Bhootas are available. Scholars are of the opinion that Pad-danas were composed in the period between the 15th and the 17th century. The book Tulu Pad-danolu written by Reverend Menor (1886), has 21 Pad-danas. The pad-dana edited by Kanaradi Vadirajabhatta (1974) and Tulu Pad-dana volume (1997) by Amrutha Someshwara are valuable books. Songs sung exclusively by girls during the transplantation of paddy seedlings are known as Kabita in Tulu. These are long poems depicting various incidents. Madipu-neither prose nor poem in the ‘form of shloka’ and is sung by dances performing Bhootha Nritya. ‘Ural’ is nearer to the chutaka of Kannada, and is sung while ploughing, driving the cart and also while tapping toddy. This has two lines and has alliteration at the end. Its specialty is that the second line has a surprising turn in content different from the content expressed in the first line. The Aatikalanja group performing the dance while singing the ‘Urals’. Proverbs and puzzles are the clever renderings of the ancient generation. Besides these, there are folk epics likeSiri, Panjurli etc. Larry Hanko of Finland has translated the Saga of Siri Pad-dana (original text: Gopala Nayka) into English and published.
In 1872, Reverend J. Brigel wrote in English the first grammar book of Tulu titled Grammar of Tulu Language. In this book, while writing about Tulu poetry, he has quoted four poems from an unknown poetic piece. In these poems, the sound ‘St’ found in the Tulu ancient epics is referred to as the sound ‘th’. Caldwell has recognized Tulu as a language stronger than the other Dravidian languages. This statement can be found in his book a comparative grammar – old Dravidian language. Sri Bhagavato, Kaveri, Tulu Mahabharata are the epics available in Tulu. Besides these, the ancient prose work Tulu Devimahatme written by one whose hereditary name is Tenkillaya is now available. Recently, nearly four to five leaves (volegari) of Karna Parva were available. But, scholars are of the opinion that this is not the continued portion of Tulu Bharata written by poet Arunabja.
It is known fact that modern Tulu age started when Christian Priests learnt Tulu and started publishing religious books in Tulu using Kannada script. Textual Tulu came into existence through translation and it is significant that this work was started only by the Christian Missionaries. At the when the missionaries’ evinced interest in Tulu and started printing, Tulu was considered to be a language without any script. Therefore, Basel Missionaries wrote Tulu in Kannada script and printed some books. Publishing of Tulu literature is one of the contributions of Basel Mission. The publishing of Tulu book started in 1842, with a Tulu translation of Gospel of Saint Mathew as ‘Mattayana Suvarte’. Srinivasa Havanoor is of the opinion that a book of Tulu Prayers (keerthana) must have been printed in the same year. ‘New Testament’ was printed in 1847 and was reprinted in 1959. Entire Bible in Tulu was published in Kannada script in the year 1859. Collection of Tulu songs, considered to be the very first voluminous book in Tulu was printed in 1864. This book contained songs written by Amman K. Marar. In the later edition, songs written by M. Manor were also included. In 1872, Reverend J. Brigel wrote the first Tulu grammar book in English – ‘Grammar of Tulu Language’. The first Tulu English dictionary was published in 1886. Reverend G. Mekerer started the dictionary work and Reverend A. Manner completed it. It is a quotable fact that, Tulu comes to the knowledge of Indian as well as foreign scholars, through these dictionary and grammar books published by the missionaries. Basel Mission gave Tulu language in a book form and gave it literary status. Scholars have recognized the work done by these missionaries for tulu language as the first stage of Tulu awakening. ‘Tulu Pad-danolu’ published in 1886a collection of a few Tulu Pad-danas is the contribution of Basel mission Institution to the collection of Tulu folk literature. Sahasrartha Gadelu (1874), Tulugeethole Pustaka (1878), English-tulu Nighantu (1888), the Devil worship of the tuluvas by A.C. Burnell (1894-97) – are a few of the books published by Basel Mission. The priests of Basel Mission translated Bible into Tulu (Sec. ed-1859) and wrote hundreds (stotra geethe) of prayers in Tulu. The very first dictionary of Tulu (begun by Rev. G. Mekerran and completed by Revok as told earlier), was revised by Prof. M. Mariappa Bhatta and A. Shankara Kedillaya. Both of them prepared a new dictionary having 8248 tulu words. Tulu Kanyopadesha (first ed. 1916, Sec. ed. 1930), written by M.R. Subramanya Shastri is a valuable book having historical significance. Kanyopadesha is in Brahmin Tulu and has 88 slokas. In 1920, the subject of Tulunadu formation raised its head. As a result, Tulunad Bank and tulunadu Chapakhane Samsthe (Tulunad printing press) were founded. Tuluva Mahasabha established in the year 1928 in Udupi has done unique work in the field of History of Tulu literature, under the leadership of Paniyadi Srinivasa Upadhyaya (S.U. Paniyadi). S.U. Paniyadi, Polali Sheenappa Hegde and K.B. Narayana Shetty Kille all of Tulunadu – were arrested for taking part in the Satyagraha movement to drive the British away from India. They were jailed in Vellore Central Jail and it is said that they were writing tulu stories and poems in jail.
The Annual Magazine ‘Tuluva Mahasabhe’ was published in 1929 with the editorship of S.U. Paniyadi the Secretary of Udupi Tulu Mahasabhe. This magazine contained some Tulu poems, Research papers regarding Tulu language and Tulunadu. Poems by Koradkal Srinivasa Rao, Udupi Kanthacharya, P. Subrahmanya Shastri, K. Honnayya Shetty, Mudradi Janardhanachar, articles written in Tulu and Kannada written by Satyamitra Bangera, Adde Subrahmanya Achar, Manjeshwara Govinda Pai, M. Ganapathi Rao Aigal, Udupi, Govinda Rao and others are said to be included in the magazine.
The name of Nandalike Amuninje Guthu Sheenappa Heggade is unforgettable in the history of Tulunadu and Tulu literature. He was a research scholar and one of the foremost tulu authors. He has authored many books both in Kannada and Tulu regarding the culture and history of Dakshina Kannada district and the book Bhootala Pandyarayana Aliyakattu. His work Mityanarayana Kathe is said to be the first novel in Tulu language. Scholars opine that Sheenappa Heggade has used the Tulu prevalent in the middle area surrounding polali. The second book (eradane hoo) of Tuluva Sahitya Male is Tuluvala Baliyendra (1929) – which is Pad-dana of Balindra in Tulu collected with an interest towards Tulu folk literature. It has three sandhis. Sheenappa Heggade’s two works are:Bangar Dangida Kathe (1933) and Mityanarayana Kathe. Mityanarayana Kathe, a novelette was born in Jail. In this novelette, there are descriptions of Jathres, Shandies of Tulunadu, Jewelery, Sports, and Nagapooje. This book was published by Paniyadi in the year 1935 from his Tulu Sahitya Male. Sheenappa Heggade’s other writings are – Dakshina Kannada Jilleya Charitre and Bhootala Pandyarayana Aliyakattu (1935). He has coauthored pracheena tulunadu with N.S. Kille. He wrote these two books in Kannada. It is a known fact that Sheenappa Heggade researched and foundAnkalipi called Navanavanka Srinivasalipi. He engaged himself with freedom movement, Tulu movement, research of oral traditions and constructive writings. He has been awarded Tuluwala title.
Aliya Santanada Katda Guttu (1929) – a Tulu book of Sathya Mitra Bangera is the third one published by Tulu Sahitya Male. S.U. Paniyadi’s Tulu Vyakarana (1932), grammar written in Tulu language itself is the fourth book of Tuluva Sahithya male. This book, considered to be a master piece in the field of research, has been influenced by ‘Grammar of Tulu language’ written by Briggel. But it is known that Paniyadi corrected the mistakes found in Briggel’s book. In the preface of this book in 1921, he has made it known that eventhough he wrote a novel Sathi Kamale in Tulu, it was not published due to lack of funds. Later the novel was published in 1934-36. The novel Sathi Kamala by Paniyadi is in Tulu. The influence of Gandhi’s thoughts can be perceived in this novel and it was written in the Shivalli Brahmin’s Tulu. M.P.V. Sharma’s Kannadako – a Tulu book was published even before 1930. These books have created mile stone in the history of Tulu Literature.
ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ ಮತ್ತು ಲಿಪಿ
ಲೇಖಕರು : ಸಂತೋಷ್ ಎನ್. ಆಚಾರ್ಯ
ಬಹುಶಃ ನಾನು ತುಂಬಾ ಕಷ್ಟ ಪಟ್ಟ ಭಾಷೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಇಂಗ್ಲೀಷ್ ಮೊದಲಿನದಾದರೆ ತುಳು ಎರಡನೆಯದು. ಹಿಂದಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕನ್ನಡಗಳು ನನಗೆ ಬೇಗನೆ ಒಲಿದಿದ್ದವು. ಇಂಗ್ಲಿಷ್ ನನ್ನ ಪರಿಶ್ರಮದಿಂದ ಒಲಿದರೆ ತುಳು ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣವಾಗಿ ಒಲಿದದ್ದು ಅಂತಿಮ ಪದವಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ನನಗೆ ತುಳು ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿ ಕಲಿಸಿದ ಪ್ರಥಮ ವರ್ಷದ ಹುಡುಗಿಯರಿಂದ ಮತ್ತು ಆಗ ನೋಡಲು ಆರಂಭಿಸಿದ ದೇವದಾಸ್ ಕಾಪಿಕಾಡ್ ನಾಟಕಗಳಿಂದ. ಅದರ ಮೊದಲು ತುಳು ಮಾತನಾಡುವುದೆಂದರೆ ಎಲ್ಲರೂ ಬೇಡ ಎಂದೇ ಹೇಳುತ್ತಿದ್ದರು. ಅಷ್ಟು ಕೆಟ್ಟದಿತ್ತೆಂದು ಪ್ರತ್ಯೇಕ ಹೇಳುವ ಅಗತ್ಯ ಇಲ್ಲ.
ಮನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕನ್ನಡ ಮಾತನಾದುತ್ತಿದುದರಿಂದ ಮೊದಲಿನಿಂದಲೂ ತುಳು ನನಗೆ ದೂರ. ‘ದಾನಿ, ಎಂಚ ಉಲ್ಲ?’ (ಏನು, ಹೇಗಿದ್ದಿ?) ಎಂದು ಯಾರಾದರೂ ಕೇಳಿದರೆ ‘ಯಾನ್ ಉಷಾರ ಉಲ್ಲೆ, ಈರ್ ಎಂಚ ಉಲ್ಲರ್?’ (ನಾನು ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿದ್ದೇನೆ, ನೀವು ಹೇಗಿದ್ದೀರಿ?) ಎಂದು ಕೇಳುವ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸವಿತ್ತೆ ಹೊರತು ನಂತರದ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಉತ್ತರ ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲೇ. ಈಗಲೂ ತುಳುವಿನಲ್ಲಿ ನನಗೆ ಆತ್ಮ ವಿಶ್ವಾಸ ಕಡಿಮೆ, ಏನೋ ಒಂದು ಹೇಳಿ ಏನೋ ಆಗುವುದು ಬೇಡ ಎಂದು ಕನ್ನಡವನ್ನೇ ಬಳಸುತ್ತೇನೆ. ಅದರ ಮೇಲೆ ಅದರ ಎರಡು ರೂಪಗಳಿಂದ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಸಲ ನಗೆಪಾಟಲಿಗೆ ಗುರಿಯಾಗಿ ನೊಂದಿದ್ದೇನೆ. ಆ ಎರಡು ರೂಪಗಳ ವ್ಯತ್ಯಾಸ ಇಲ್ಲಿಯವರೆಗೆ ಗೊತ್ತಿಲ್ಲವಾದ್ದರಿಂದ ಆ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಬರೆಯುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಆದರೆ ನಮ್ಮೂರು ಮತ್ತು ಅದನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಉಡುಪಿ ಮತ್ತು ಮಂಗಳೂರುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ತುಳು ಒಂದು ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಭಾಷೆ. ಕರಾವಳಿ ಸಂಸ್ಕೃತಿ ಎಂದು ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಏನು ಕರೆಯುತ್ತಾರೋ ಅದರೊಂದಿಗೆ ಅದರ ಬೆನ್ನು ಮೂಳೆ ಆಗಿ ಇರುವಂಥದ್ದು.
ಕೇವಲ ಎರಡು ಜಿಲ್ಲೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಸೀಮಿತವಾಗಿರುವ ಈ ಭಾಷೆ ಪಂಚ ದ್ರಾವಿಡ ಭಾಷೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು. ಪರಶುರಾಮನ ಕೊಡಲಿಯಿಂದ ಹುಟ್ಟಿದೆ ಎನ್ನಲಾದ ತುಳುನಾಡು ಇಂದಿಗೂ ಆಡು ಭಾಷೆಯ ವಿಷಯದಲ್ಲಿ ತುಳುವನ್ನು ಕಾಯ್ದುಕೊಂಡು ಬಂದಿದೆ. ಕಳೆದುಕೊಂಡದ್ದು ಕೇವಲ ಲಿಪಿ ಮಾತ್ರ. ಲಿಪಿ ಯಾಕೆ ಬಳಕೆಯಿಂದ ದೂರವಾಯಿತೋ ಗೊತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ, ಬಹುಶಃ ಇದ್ದ ಸಾಕ್ಷರರ ಸಂಖ್ಯೆ ಕಡಿಮೆ ಇತ್ತೋ ಅಥವಾ ಸಾಕ್ಷರರಾಗಿದ್ದ ಗುಂಪು ಲಿಪಿ ಬಳಸುವುದಕ್ಕೆ ಪ್ರಾಧಾನ್ಯತೆ ಕೊಡಲಿಲ್ಲವೋ. ಇದು ಅನುಮಾನ ಅಷ್ಟೇ. ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಒಂದು ಭಾಷೆ ನಶಿಸುವುದು ಮಾತನಾಡುವವರ ಸಂಖ್ಯೆ ಕ್ಷೀಣಿಸಿದರೆ, ಹಾಗೆಯೇ ಲಿಪಿ ನಶಿಸುವುದು ಬಳಕೆ ಕೊನೆಗೊಂಡಾಗ. ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಆಳಿದೆ ಎನ್ನಲಾದ ಆಳುಪ ವಂಶದ ಶಾಸನ ತುಳು ಲಿಪಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಇದೆಯೋ ಮುಂದೊಮ್ಮೆ ಯಾರಾದರೂ ಇತಿಹಾಸಜ್ಞರು ಸಿಕ್ಕಿದರೆ ಕೇಳಬೇಕು ಅಥವಾ ಸಂಪದದಲ್ಲಿ ಇದರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಗೊತ್ತಿದ್ದರೆ ತಿಳಿಸಿ.
ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆಗೆ ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತ ಕಾಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಗಮನ ದೊರಕಿದ್ದು ರೆವೆರೆಂಡ್ ರಾಬರ್ಟ್ ಕಾಡವೆಲ್, ಇವರ A comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages’ ಎಂಬ ಪುಸ್ತಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಅವರು ದ್ರಾವಿಡ ಭಾಷೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಇದೂ ಕೂಡ ವಿಕಾಸಗೊಂಡ ಭಾಷೆ ಎಂದು ಹೇಳಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಭಾಷೆಗೆ ಲಿಪಿ ಇದ್ದರೆ ಅದು ವಿಕಾಸಗೊಂಡಿದೆ, ಆ ಭಾಷೆಯ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಗಾಗಿ ಕೆಲಸ ನಡೆದಿದೆ ಎಂದು ಅರ್ಥೈಸಬಹುದು. ನಮ್ಮಲ್ಲಿ ಇರುವ ವಿಷಯಗಳು ಬೇರೆ ದೇಶದವರು ಹೇಳಿದರೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ನಾವು ಗಮನ ಹರಿಸುವುದರಿಂದ ತುಳು ಕೂಡ ಅದರ ನಂತರವೇ ತುಳುವರಲ್ಲದವರ ಗಮನಕ್ಕೆ ಬಂದದ್ದು.
ಮಲಯಾಳಂನೊಂದಿಗೆ ಸಾಮ್ಯತೆ ಇರುವ ತುಳು ಲಿಪಿ(ಗ್ರಂಥ ಲಿಪಿ) ಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬರೆಯಲಾದ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳೆಂದರೆ ‘ತುಳು ಮಹಾಭಾರತೋ’ ‘ದೇವಿ ಮಹಾತ್ಮೆ’, ‘ಶ್ರೀ ಭಾಗವತ’ ಇತ್ಯಾದಿ. ಈ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು ಸುಮಾರು ೧೫ನೆ ಶತಮಾನದವು ಅದ್ದರಿಂದ ಅಲ್ಲಿಯವರೆಗೆ ಈ ಲಿಪಿ ಬಳಕೆಯಲ್ಲಿತ್ತು ಎಂದು ಹೇಳಬಹುದು.
ತುಳು ಲಿಪಿಯ ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ ಕೊನೆ ಕಾರಣವಾದವರು ಜರ್ಮನ್ ಮಿಷಿನರಿಗಳು ಎಂದು ಹೇಳಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಅವರು ತುಳು ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳನ್ನು ಕನ್ನಡ ಲಿಪಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಕಟಿಸಿದ್ದು ಅವನತಿಯ ಹಾದಿಯಲ್ಲಿದ್ದ ತುಳು ಲಿಪಿಗೆ ಕಬ್ಬಿಣದ ಸಲಾಕೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಹೊಡೆದಂತಾಯಿತು. ಈ ಲೇಖನಕ್ಕೆ ಮೂಲ ಕಾರಣ ನನ್ನ ಗೆಳೆಯ ಭರತ್, ನಿನ್ನೆ ತುಳುಗೆ ಕೂಡ ಲಿಪಿ ಇದೇ ನೋಡು ಎಂದು ಮೇಲ್ ಮಾಡಿದ್ದ. ಅದರಿಂದ ಈ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಅಂತರ್ಜಾಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಹುಡುಕಿದಾಗ ಸಿಕ್ಕ ಮಾಹಿತಿಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಮುಂದಿಟ್ಟಿದ್ದೇನೆ